Public School Movement- supporters of this movement wanted public school to be funded by taxes. Education would create better citizens for democracy and promote economic growth by creating knowledgeable workers.
Horace Mann- an education reformer who wanted
1) free public schools
2) school standardization
3) well-educated professional teachers
Women emerge as prominent in school reform
Mental Illness and Prison Reform
Dorthea Dix- promoted the construction of human hospitals for the mentally ill instead of jail. Worked to reform prisons
Penitentiary Movement- supporters of this reform effort believed prisons should make criminals feel penitence or sorrow for their crime. Believed in reform more than punishment.