School, Prison, Mental Health

Education Reform

Public School Movement- supporters of this movement wanted public school to be funded by taxes.  Education would create better citizens for democracy and promote economic growth by creating knowledgeable workers.


Horace Mann- an education reformer who wanted

1) free public schools

2) school standardization

3) well-educated professional teachers


Women emerge as prominent in school reform


Mental Illness and Prison Reform

Dorthea Dix- promoted the construction of human hospitals for the mentally ill instead of jail.  Worked to reform prisons


Penitentiary Movement- supporters of this reform effort believed prisons should make criminals feel penitence or sorrow for their crime.  Believed in reform more than punishment.

Eastern State Penitentiary Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Eastern State Penitentiary
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania