Market Revolution

This transformation was the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • changed economy, culture, social life, and politics


Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in 1700s with steam powered machines

  • tried to limit the expansion of this technology


Samuel Slater did bring textile machinery knowledge to US and built first water powered textile mill in 1793.

  • used family system of labor


Francis Cabot Lowell

  • gathered information from Great Britain
  • created company called Boston Associates
  • 1813- built first mill in Waltham, Massachusetts
  • Performed ALL operations in the production of thread
  • Lowell Girls were young, single girls that worked hard in the factories


Factory works was very different – unskilled labor cheaper




Inventions of the early 1800s

  • interchangeable parts – Eli Whitney
  • Sewing Machine – Elias Howe and Isaac Singer
  • Telegraph – Samuel F.B. Morse (1837)

o   By 1860- 50,000 miles of telegraph lines

  • Steel Plow – John Deere
  • Mechanical Reaper – Cyrus McCormick



Sectional Differences


Industrialization occurred mainly in the North


Cotton boom in the south further deepened the slave labor force


Between 1815 and 1860 an industrial sector formed



Why did Industrialization spread?

  • Embargo of 1807

o   Cut off access to British manufactured goods

  • War of 1812

o   Also…cut off access to British manufactured goods

  • Tariff of 1816

o   Intended to protect American industry

o   Helped industry, but hurt farmers


Why did manufacturing begin in the North?

  • access to capital money to build factories

o   the south invested their capital in land and slaves

  • more cheap labor to work in factories in North
  • more swift rivers in North for water power in factories





Social Changes in the North


Industry reduced the skill required for many jobs

Workers organized

  • sought free public education
  • limit workday to 10 hours from standard 12
  • labor unions

o   Lowell Girls strikes of 1834 and 1836

 Middle class emerged

Emigration from Ireland and Germany

  • surge from these areas due to political, economic, and famine problems
  • by 1860, 40% of New York City population – immigrants
  • few immigrants went south because there were no jobs


Southern Agricultural Economy and Society


Slavery became more profitable as cotton became South’s leading crop.


Reasons why cotton prospered

  • cotton gin – Eli Whitney (1793)
  • planters moved west
  • cotton supply filled the demand from northern textile factories


Cotton and cotton textiles

  • over ½ value of all US exports
  • King Cotton


Demand for slaves soared even though overseas slave trade abolished in 1808

  • far from ending, slaver was more deeply entrenched


Most of the South became too dependent on one crop


Plantations dispersed populations and limited growth of cities


Northern population grew much faster than southern population

  • North had twice as many free people as the South in 1850
  • Affected House of Representatives


Illiteracy 3 times higher in South



Although central to life in the south, only ¼ of white men owned slaves in south

  • of those, ¾ held fewer than 10 slaves
  • only 3000 white men owned more than 100 slaves


Why then was slavery so vigorously defended?

  • aspirations of common farmer
  • fear that freed slaves would seek revenge
  • racial bond
  • said it was a positive good – not necessary evil

o   slavery kinder to African Americans than industrial life was to white workers