Treaty of Ghent


Treaty of Ghent – December 24, 1814

  • Belgium

    The Treaty

  • Negotiators for the US

o   Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, and James Bayard

  • Negotiators for GB were really messengers because the British were far more concerned with the redrawing of Europe going on at the same time at the Congress of Vienna
  • Who won the war????
  • No one won
  • No land changed hands
  • Treaty did NOT mention impressments of sailors but European war was over so not an issue any longer

 

America failed in Canada invasion

 

Great Britain failed in American invasions

 

Treaty Provisions (signed Christmas Eve 1814)
  • Restored pre-war boundaries
  • Agreed to set up committee in future boundary disputes
  • Did NOT mention neutrality or impressments
  • US viewed it as triumph since we got news of it AFTER Battle of New Orleans
Illusion of Jackson forcing British to make peace

 

Battle of New Orleans –

January 8, 1815

  • Biggest battle of war
  • Fought two weeks after treaty signed
  • Andrew Jackson – American commander
  • British attempt to invade Southwest

o   British – 8000 men

o   American – 5400 men

o   Casualties

        • British – 2036
        • American – 71
  • Only decisive battle

o   Sooooo….when asked who won? People assumed We did!

  • Americans thought of conflict as noble defense of US against British aggression  battleneworleans

 

Results of War of 1812

  • Surge of nationalism
  • New strength and confidence in the republic
  • Strengthened isolation
  • Increased westward expansion

o   Ended Indian resistance for a while

  • Encouraged American industry
  • Ended Federalist Party

o   Opposed war

o   Made them look weak as the war was popular once it was over

 

Hartford Convention (1814)

  • Advocate states’ rights and nullification
  • Wanted Constitutional amendment to require 2/3 majority to declare war and admit states
  • Federalist delegates from New England states met

o   Consider cession and making separate peace with Great Britain

  • Instead demanded Constitutional amendment to strengthen New England political power by limiting the president to one term (the Virginians had dominated the post at that time) and rotating the position among citizens from different states.

 

Adams- Onis Treaty – 1819

  • US renounced its claims to Texas as a result of Spain giving up Florida due to tensions of increased settlers, Indians, and fugitive slaves